Cooperation vs Competition vs Individualistic Efforts in Cooperative Education

There are many reasons why competitors tend to achieve less than they would if they were working cooperatively. And there have also been lots of studies making a claim that cooperative learning is more effective than competitive learning and individualistic efforts. But studies also show that competition and individualistic efforts can be constructive and should be encouraged when they are appropriately structured.

Conditions for Constructive Competition
Winning is relatively unimportant
All participants have a reasonable chance to win.
There are clear and specific rules, procedures, and criteria for winning.

Conditions for Constructive Individualistic Efforts
Cooperation is too costly, difficult or cumbersome because of the unavailability of skilled potential cooperators or the unavailability of the resources need for cooperation to take place.
The goal is perceived as important, relevant, and worthwhile
Participants expect to be successful in achieving their goals.
The directions for completing the tasks are clear and specific, so participants do not need further clarification on how to proceed and how to evaluate their work.
What is accomplished will be used subsequently in a cooperative effort.