Acronyms and Abbreviations

    ALL: Apprenticeship Language Learning
    CALL: computer-assisted language learning
    CLIL: content and language integrated learning
    CELI: Certificato di Conoscenza della Lingua Italiana
    CLL: community language learning
    DELE: Diploma de Español como Lengua Extranjera
    DELF: diplôme d'études en langue française
    EFL: English as a foreign language
    ELL: English language learning
    ELT: English language teaching
    FLL: foreign language learning
    FLT: foreign language teaching
    L1: first language, native language, mother tongue
    L2: second language (or any additional language)
    LDL: Lernen durch Lehren (German for learning by teaching)
    LOTE: Languages Other Than English
    SLA: second language acquisition
    TELL: technology-enhanced language learning
    TEFL: teaching English as a foreign language N.B. This article is about travel-teaching.
    TEFLA: teaching English as a foreign language to adults
    TESOL: teaching English to speakers of other languages
    TPR: Total Physical Response
    TPRS: Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling
    UNIcert is a European language education system of many universities based on the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages.