School Expulsion

Expulsion or exclusion refers to the permanent removal of a student from a school system or university for persistently violating that institution's rules. Laws and procedures regarding expulsion vary between countries and states.

In the United States, Expulsion criteria and process vary from state to state, though it is very difficult for a student to be expelled from school, except in cases of violence or drug use on school property. Following the Columbine shooting event and many "zero-tolerance" policies, schools have become increasingly willing to expel students for minor offenses in certain categories. Depending on local school board jurisdiction, approval from that school's local school board may be required before a student can be expelled, as opposed to a suspension which may only require approval from the principal. Students are usually not expelled for academic violations such as plagiarism that would be punishable in college.

Reasons for expulsion from U.S. schools
Students may be withdrawn by their principals for a variety of reasons, those listed in one source include the following. Standards listed here are in accordance to California education standards.

    Causing, attempting to cause, or threatening to cause a physical injury to another person
    The use of force or violence against the person of another (except in self defense but even then one may be suspended)
    Possessing, selling, or otherwise providing a firearm, knife, explosive or other dangerous object
    Committing or attempting to commit robbery or extortion
    Possessing an imitation firearm
    Making terrorist threats against school officials or school property
    Making crude weapons out of office supplies

    Rape or some other sexual assault or battery.
    The commission of an obscene act or engaging in habitual profanity or vulgarity.
    Severe sexual harassment (sex crimes) or general harassment (grades 5-12)

    Drug use, possession, supply on campus. This includes offering, arranging or negotiating to sell. This includes tobacco, alcohol, narcotics, cocaine, marijuana, and betel.
    Offering of drugs, even legal non-perscription to other students.

Hate crimes
Causing, attempting to cause, threatening to cause, or participating in an act of hate violence.

Other acts which are not explicitly mentioned
    Vandalism of either school or private property.
    Stealing either school or private property.
    Knowingly receiving stolen property.

Acts which are prejudicial to good order at the school
    Harassing, threatening, or intimidating a pupil who is either a complaining witness or other witness in a school disciplinary case, or making a retaliation against a person for being a witness in a school disciplinary case.

Failure to attend
This has been cited by some as something which can result in expulsion. While it is not mentioned explicitly it does come under defying the valid authority of supervisors, teachers or other members of staff. Students are often expelled from school for truancy. In the United States, students under 18 (most states) are considered truants if they do not regularly attend school and can result in charges against the parents. Students without disabilities that are under 18 who are expelled have the option to attend alternative schools. Students with disabilities who are expelled are required to have home instruction provided for them. Students without disabilities that over 18 have the option to go to alternative schools but do not have to be enrolled in school by most state laws.

Persistent rebellion
    Excessive rule infractions. Constantly breaking the rules will eventually result in being removed from school. This again is a case of defying the valid authority of supervisors, teachers or other members of staff.

Returning to school after involuntary withdrawals
Depending on the reason, some students do have a chance of re-entering the school system after being expelled. Sometimes the student is even able to return to the school that they were withdrawn from. However, if the offense that causes expulsion is highly threatening to others, then the student may not be allowed to go on the grounds of their former school. If the person does, s/he risks being arrested and legal action against the person.