Causes of Type 2 Diabetes

Medical conditions
Diabetes mellitus type 2 is often associated with obesity, hypertension, elevated cholesterol (combined hyperlipidemia), and with the condition often termed Metabolic syndrome (it is also known as Syndrome X, Reavan's syndrome, or CHAOS). Secondary causes of Diabetes mellitus type 2 are: acromegaly, Cushing's syndrome, thyrotoxicosis, pheochromocytoma, chronic pancreatitis, cancer and drugs. Additional factors found to increase risk of type 2 diabetes include aging, high-fat diets and a less active lifestyle.

There is also a strong inheritable genetic connection in type 2 diabetes: having relatives (especially first degree) with type 2 increases risks of developing type 2 diabetes very substantially. In addition, there is also a mutation to the Islet Amyloid Polypeptide gene that results in an earlier onset, more severe, form of diabetes. About 55 percent of type 2 are obese —chronic obesity leads to increased insulin resistance that can develop into diabetes, most likely because adipose tissue (especially that in the abdomen around internal organs) is a (recently identified) source of several chemical signals to other tissues (hormones and cytokines). Other research shows that type 2 diabetes causes obesity as an effect of the changes in metabolism and other deranged cell behavior attendant on insulin resistance. However, genetics play a relatively small role in the widespread occurrence of type 2 diabetes. This can be logically deduced from the huge increase in the occurrence of type 2 diabetes which has correlated with the significant change in western lifestyle.

Drug induced hyperglycemia:

    * Atypical Antipsychotics - Alter receptor binding characteristics, leading to increased insulin resistance.
    * Beta-blockers - Inhibit insulin secretion.
    * Calcium Channel Blockers - Inhibits secretion of insulin by interfering with cytosolic calcium release.
    * Corticosteroids - Cause peripheral insulin resistance and gluconeogensis.
    * Fluoroquinolones - Inhibits insulin secretion by blocking ATP sensitive potassium channels.
    * Naicin - causes increased insulin resistance due to increased free fatty acid mobilization.
    * Phenothiazines - Inhibit insulin secretion.
    * Protease Inhibitors - Inhibit the conversion of proinsulin to insulin.
    * Somatropin - May decrease sensitivity to insulin, especially in those susceptible.
    * Thiazide Diuretics - Inhibit insulin secretion due to hypokalemia. They also cause increased insulin resistance due to increased free fatty