Academic Ranks in Brazil

Federal level
Academic ranks in the federal universities have been updated slightly over the years via new legislation. Since 2013, ranks are organized in five classes, containing up to four levels each:
Class E, Professor titular (single level): equivalent to full professor
Class D, Professor associado (levels 1, 2, 3, 4): must hold a PhD, equivalent to associate professor
Class C, Professor adjunto (levels 1, 2, 3, 4): must hold a PhD, equivalent to assistant professor
Class B, Professor assistente (levels 1 and 2): must hold a master's degree
Class A (levels 1 and 2): pre-tenure faculty
Professor adjunto A: must hold a PhD
Professor assistente A: must hold a master's degree
Professor auxiliar: must hold an undergraduate degree or specialization title

Federal university professors are public servants and as such acquire tenure automatically after an initial three-year probationary period (Portuguese: estágio probatório; see also Brazilian Civil Service#Tenure). Salary is pre-determined for each class/level combination, increasing with rank advancement, and includes a thirteenth salary. Federal university professors are also entitled to 45-day annual leave, compensated one-third higher than the normal salary. Hiring is done through a civil service entrance examination open to anyone eligible - though normally in Portuguese, which represents a challenge for internationals- and normally leads to the bottom rank (class A, level 1).

Career advancement is achieved through progression across levels of a given class and promotion across different classes, with each step normally requiring two years of service plus approval in a performance evaluation (internal to the university). Faculty may expedite promotion upon tenuring (3-year probation) thus advancing to the first level of class B or class C if they are holders of the required degrees (master's or PhD, respectively).

Advancement to the top rank (class E) requires additionally either a type of Habilitation (defense of an original thesis) or approval of a written document (Portuguese: memorial) describing the applicant's professional achievements (in teaching, research, outreach, and academic administration); the evaluation process in this case is carried out by a special commission made of at least 75% of members external to the applicant's own university.

State level
At São Paulo state universities, particularly at the University of São Paulo, the academic rank system is as follows:
Professor titular (MS-6): equivalent to full professor, the position normally requires years of academic experience and meaningful publications in international academic journals
Professor associado (MS-5): must hold a livre docente title (similar to a German Habilitation), equivalent to associate professor
Professor adjunto (MS-3): must hold a PhD, equivalent to assistant professor
Professor assistente (MS-2): must hold a master's degree and a pedagogical preparation (PAE), equivalent to scientific assistant or research assistant
Auxiliar de ensino (MS-1): only a bachelor's degree is required, equivalent to student assistant