Academic Ranks in India

The Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), The Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (IISc) and National Institute of Technology (NITs) follow the U.S. style three-tiered academic system, with strict requirements for entry level positions. An Asstt. Professor's position requires a Ph.D. and at least three years of postdoctoral experience, applicants with less experience are appointed to a "contract" position, which is similar to a "non tenure-track" position in U.S universities. Early reviews for promotion to Associate Professorship can be conducted in the fourth year of employment, although, it is becoming more common for promotion and tenure to be awarded in the sixth year of employment. The review requires a certain number of journal and conference publications, recommendations from reviewers in India and abroad, and an exemplary record of teaching and service. The institutes also have a well known bias towards recruiting U.S PhDs (typically with IIT undergraduate degrees), compared to Ph.Ds from India. Promotion to the position of (full) Professorship is usually never difficult. Its common nowadays to see more Professors than the combined strength of Assistant and Associate Professors at any typical department.

Other Universities: There are two routes to enter academia, one through direct selection by a university or college (government or private), and the second through competitive selection by a centralised commission. The commission's selection is based on scores for MA/MSc, National Eligibility Test (NET) conducted by University Grants Commission (India) and the Public Service Commission interviews.

There are three faculty ranks "Assistant Professor", "Associate Professor" and "Professor." The earlier designations of lecturer (equivalent to junior assistant professor), senior lecturer (equivalent to assistant professor) and reader (equivalent to associate professor) have been abolished from 2009. From 2009, AICTE norms have abolished the posts of "lecturer" and "senior lecturer" in technical courses, leaving only "assistant professor", "associate professor" and "professor" posts.

At present a post-graduate can teach as assistant professor, but tenured positions are available only if s/he has cleared the eligibility test (NET). To get a promotion to associate professor at least 3 publications (in a reputed journal) are required for a post graduate or at least one publication for a doctorate holder. But doctorate is mandatory for direct recruitment to associate professor. Only doctorate holders can become professors. Those with post-graduate degrees with other eligibility criteria (viz. NET/SET/Ph.D.etc.) are allowed to teach in undergraduate colleges, post-graduate or university level. The salary of the three tier Professors with Academic Grade Pay (AGP) has been fixed by 6th Pay Commission of 2006 (In Indian Rupees, US$1 ~ INR Rs 65)- Assistant Professor: Rs 15,600-39,100 (AGP: Rs 6000), total amount: Rs 45,000/- per month, Associate Professor: Rs 37400-67000 (AGP Rs 9000), total amount: Rs 80,000/- per month, Professor: Rs 37400-67000 (AGP Rs 10,000), total amount: Rs 82,000-120,000/- and Professor (HAG) Rs 67000-79000 (limited only to 10% in equivalent grade of additional secretary government of India).

In the medical colleges of India (such as the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) the term Professor is used for the senior most teaching faculty. The postgraduate trainees are called "Junior Residents", while the term "Senior Resident" is used for those who are in a teaching post after their postgraduate training. Alternately, a Senior Resident is one who is enrolled in a superspeciality training such as DM in Neurology or MCh in Cardiothoracic Surgery etc.. After Senior Residency of three years, a doctor is eligible to apply for the "Assistant Professor" post which is usually a regular appointment and a permanent job in Govt colleges. He then gets promotions every 3 to 5 years to "Associate Professor", then as "Additional Professor" and finally becomes a "Professor". Usually a Professor (or in the absence of a Professor, an Additional Professor) is the Head of the Department.