The Science test, which contains 50 questions that must be answered in 80 minutes, contains questions about life science (45%), earth and space science (20%), and physical science (35%).

Most questions on the Science test involve a graphic such as a map, graph, chart, or diagram. Subjects covered include photosynthesis, weather and climate, geology, magnetism, energy, and cell division. Few of the questions require the student to demonstrate outside knowledge, since most are dependent on the text and graphics provided. Questions that do require outside knowledge are generally questions about common, everyday scientific matters, such as "Which household product can be hazardous when mixed with bleach?" (Answer: ammonia.)