Professor Ranks in the Netherlands

Most academic staff will have both research and teaching duties.

The ranking system of faculty with combined teaching and research tasks in Dutch universities is as follows:

universitair docent 2, abbreviated UD2 (literal translation University lecturer rank 2. Equivalent to UK lecturer, and US assistant professor - pay grade 11)
universitair docent 1, abbreviated UD1 (literal translation University lecturer rank 1. Equivalent to UK lecturer, and US assistant professor - pay grade 12)
universitair hoofddocent 2, abbreviated UHD2 (literal translation University head lecturer rank 2. Equivalent to UK senior lecturer, and US associate professor- pay grade 13)
universitair hoofddocent 1, abbreviated UHD1 (literal translation University head lecturer rank 1. Equivalent to UK reader, and US associate professor- pay grade 14)
hoogleraar 2, or professor (literal translation high teacher rank 2, lowest Dutch academic rank allowed to use the title prof. Equivalent to UK professor, and US full professor - pay grade H2).
hoogleraar 1, or professor (literal translation high teacher rank 1. Usually department or sub department chair. Equivalent to UK professor, and US full professor - pay grade H1).

In daily practice no distinction is made between rank 1 and 2 in the Dutch ranking system. Each rank increase come with a shift in pay grade. Promotion from rank 2 to rank 1 within the same function is usually easier than moving to a differently named function.

University of applied sciences appoint lectors to coordinate their (applied) research. Like a full professor, a lector coordinates a research group. In contrast to full professors, lectors are not allowed to be principal supervisor of PhD students and are not allowed to use the formal title "professor".

Full professors
The title professor is protected by Dutch law and can only be used to address full professors (or emeritus full professors) affiliated with a university. The title, or abbreviation cannot be used for any other teaching, professional, or academic rank.

A (full) professor should have substantial research achievements and international reputation.

The head of a department or of a "chair-group" within a department is a full professor. After a "chaired" professor leaves university, an open application is usually announced to replace the chair holder.

Personal chairs, are full professors created based on personal achievement but have no formal administrative function in leading a department. Personal chair are becoming increasingly familiar; and are generally promoted from the assistant or associate professor ranks in a department. If a personal chair leaves the chair ceases to exist.

Dutch universities also appoint professors occupying an endowed chair (Dutch: "bijzonder hoogleraar", literally "special professor"), often on a part-time basis. Special professors usually have their main employment somewhere else, often in industry or at a research institute or University elsewhere, although some foundations sponsor a special professor for one of the sitting associate professors. The special professor (bijzonder hoogleraar) does not get paid by the university, but receives a salary from an external organization, such as a company, an organization or a fund. Special (endowed) professors sometimes provide lectures or do research on special topics associated with their main employment. They also often supervise graduate students who may do their research at the place of the professor's main employment.

Some Dutch universities have also instituted University Professorships appointing scientific ambassadors by the university, rather than representing a department. The Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences can sponsor an established professor to be an Academy Professor. In addition, members of the Royal Academy are selected full professor. Being elected to member of the academy is a high honor for a sitting professor.

When a full professor retires in good standing, the professor becomes professor emeritus. This allows the retired professor to keep the title professor for life. A professor emeritus is allowed to supervise doctorate theses until five years after retirement, but the use of the honorific professor is for life. Professors emeriti have no formal teaching or administrative duties and are paid no salaries (instead they receive pension payment). They are generally provided a desk and access to university resources as long as the professor emeritus requests. In some cases, professors who move to another university can use the professor emeritus title for a limited period of time, to allow finishing ongoing projects.

Due to the system part-time special professors and personal chairs promoted from sitting staff within a department, many university research groups will have several professors.

In the Netherlands a special right of a full professor has always been the ius promovendi. This means that by Dutch law, any doctoral dissertation must always be supported by a full professor; or in other words the principal supervisor of any PhD project is always a full professor. From 2018 onwards, the law has changed and any professor positions with a research university appointment is eligible to be main supervisor of a PhD student. Universities have agreed that only professor with shown capacity to supervise PhD projects will be granted this right.

International comparison
Although the ranks are often translated as if they were aligned with the American system (i.e. assistant, associate, and full professor), this not as clear-cut. Traditionally a lecturer could only become associate or full professor by applying for such a position if there was a vacancy. However, Dutch universities are moving towards a system closer to the US tenure track system to have more flexibility in rewarding merits of individuals. In Dutch universities, permanent positions must be offered upon the third extension of fixed-term position or after 6 years of continuous contracts(whichever comes first), a rule which was instantiated to avoid permatemps.

In 1986 there was a reform of the system. Junior professors and professors of the agricultural and technology universities, until then labelled as Lector were transformed into full Professors. A rank 2 professor was introduced at a lower salary scale than the existing professors. The present salary scales refer to Professor 1 or Professor 2 (the former is the higher in standing). The former title buitengewoon hoogleraar ("professor by special appointment", literally "extraordinary professor") for a part-time professor is no longer used (since the 1986 reforms); all the then holders of such positions became part-time full professors.

In the early 2000s the lector position has been re-introduced at universities of applied sciences for research group leaders aimed at applied research. Until that moment universities of applied sciences had no research tasks. Based on salary pay grade, lectors would ranks between associate and full professor in the research university system.