Pedology (paidology, paedology) is the study of children's behavior and development, not to be confused with pedagogy, which is the art or science of teaching.

The origins of this trend in psychology and pedagogy can be traced back to the end of the 18th century with the separation of a branch of psychology that should be the base of pedagogy, a pedagogic psychology or "experimental pedagogic psychology", "experimental pedagogy", "experimental education".

At the early roots of pedology as a separate study was G. Stanley Hall, who was also instrumental in the development of modern educational psychology. The term "pedology" was suggested in 1893 by an American researcher, Oscar Chrisman. At the end of the 19th century, pedology as a comprehensive study of the child became active in Europe as an attempt to create a study of children in the manner of natural sciences. In 1909 a Pedological Society was organized by Professor Kazimierz Twardowski in Lviv, Austro-Hungary (now Ukraine). In 1910 a similar society was organized in Kraków. In 1911 the first World Congress in Pedology was held in Brussels, Belgium, with attendants from 22 countries.

World War I effectively put an end to the development of this study in Western Europe.

Since the study has never reached its maturity, there is no common established understanding as to the scope and instruments of pedology.

Bowie State University in Bowie, Maryland is the first University in the United States to offer a Bachelor's Degree in pedology.