Primary Schools

The primary (elementary) school (Czech: základní škola) consists of nine grades which are divided to two substages.

'=1st stage of school= The first stage contains first 5 years of education. Children are taught by only one teacher for all subjects (sometimes there is a second teacher for foreign language or Physical Education). The subjects taught at this stage are Czech, 1st foreign language (mostly English), Mathematics, Computer Science, Basics of History and Geography, Basics of Sciences, Arts, Music, Physical Education and Handworks.
The first stage school is usually in every town and village. In small villages with a low number of pupils, several grades (2 or 3) can be taught in one class.

=== 2nd stage of school === The second stage contains years 6-9. Subject taught at this stage are Czech, Literature, 1st foreign language, 2nd foreign language (obligatory in years 8-9), Mathematics, Computer Science, History, Geography, Civical Science, Physics, Biology, Chemistry (obligatory in years 8-9), Music, Arts, Physical Education and Handwork (only in elementary schools).

Pupils can take their 2nd stage studies at elementary schools, at 8-years grammar school (osmileté gymnázium, generally orientated, physical education orientated) or at 6-years grammar school (šestileté gymnázium, generally orientated, physical education orientated, education in foreign language). Nowadays, most pupils continue at elementary schools. As for the grammar schools, 8-years grammar school is more popular as the 6-years version (almost not existing). In 6-years bilingual grammar school, the first two years (years 8 and 9), the pupils have intensive course of the foreign language (about 10 lessons per week), in years 10-13, the most subjects are taught in the foreign language.

At 8- and 6-years grammar schools, the classes are usually called by Latin numbers - so at 8-years grammar school, the year 6 is called prima (the first in Latin - the first year in grammar school), year 7 sekunda and so on.

Elementary and Practical Schools
Predecessor of this type of schools were Special Schools. These schools were given over to children with mental or developmental handicap who were not able to follow education in Elementary Schools. The subject matters were restricted. In consequence, Special Schools leavers could not continue on all types of secondary education schools.
To be able to be accepted to this school, a reference of a psychologist of pedagogy and parents' agreement were required. However, many children of Romany ethnicity studied these schools, even though they had an average IQ; the lack of tested abilities were caused by their social background rather than by their mental abilities. It was criticised by European Court of Human Rights.

Elementary and Practical Schools are, as the Special Schools, given over to children with hard mental handicap and still has restricted subject matters. The problem of high number of Romany ethnicity pupils continues. On the contrary, "integrated education", i. e. education of handicapped children in ordinary schools (with assistance of a special teacher), is more and more common in the Czech Republic.