Secondary Education

After obligatory Elementary Schools, pupils can continue on higher type of schools that vary in number of years, in type of qualification and in possibility of university studies.

For entering the schools with maturita exam, future students will have to take an entrance test from Czech language and Mathematics organized by state's agency CERMAT (firstly required for pupils who will finish elementary school in 2016/2017). Each school can require more entrance exams.

Practical Schools are continuation of Elementary and Practical Schools (the word practical in name of these schools refers to Practical Schools, that are usually taught in the same school as the special elementary education). They offer 1 or 2 years course. The education is mainly practical oriented and its aim is to teach students to be self-sufficient and to give them abilities for some easier auxiliary works.

2 years vocational course offer qualification without vocational certificate.

Vocational course lasts 2 or 3 years. In the end, student must take qualification exam and obtains vocational certificate. These courses are divided into two subtypes. "Easier" courses' graduates can work only in qualified auxiliary professions and cannot be self-employed. The other one'es graduates have a higher qualification and can be self-employed.

Vocational school with maturita lasts 4 years. In the end, student must take qualification exam (obtains vocational certificate as from vocational course) and take maturita exam; to be graduate, student must succeed in both exams. As they have taken maturita exam, graduates can continue their studies on university.

Professional high school lasts 4 years and students must take maturita exam. There is a huge variety of offered branches, mainly industrially oriented (such as technical chemistry or electrical engineering), but also oriented in agriculture, health service, IT or economy.

Lyceum or generally professional high school prepares student for university studies. The subject matteres are more general than in professional high schools and out-of-profession subject (such as History or Geography) are taught wider than on professional high schools. Technical Lyceum, Economical Lyceum, Pedagogical Lyceum, Medical Lyceum, Scientific Lyceum (Chemistry and Biology), and Military Lyceum are offered (Military Lyceum is controlled in cooperation with Ministry of Defence).

Grammar Schools are partly continuation of 8- and 6-years Grammar Schools and partly 4-years Grammar Schools for Elementary Schools leavers. 4-years Grammar Schools are generally or Physical Education oriented, but (as well as the 8 or 6-years type) the generally oriented schools can decide for a specialisation. The subjects are the same as in Elementary Schools, but are obligatory only in grade 10 and 11 (Mathematics also in grade 12, Czech and 2 foreign languages till grade 13). The schools can decide these subject to be obligatory also in 2 last years or the students to have more elective subjects than legally required minimum. Grammar school graduates have no qualification, the aim of this type of school is a preparation for university studies.

Maturita exam
Maturita exam is ending exam on 4-year secondary schools and is a requirement for university studies and higher professional schools. Maturita exams from all schools are equal and mean possibility to study in all types of universities.

Subjects of exam

Czech language and world literature contains 3 subexams:
a. test of reading abilities and grammar
b. writing
c. oral exam from literature; student must analyse 1 of books he has chosen for his exam. Student must decide for 20 books after consultation with his Literature teacher; he must also follow the requirement for this list (minimal number of works from certain historical period, minimally 1 prose, 1 book of poems and 1 drama)

2nd subject is to be chosen from foreign language (English, German, French, Spanish or Russian; reading, listening, writing and speaking exam of B1 level of CEFR) or mathematics (written test).
These to exams are organised by Ministry of Education (CERMAT agency) by unified tests. In addition to that, student must take 2 or 3 exams according to his qualification. Every school decides which exams are obligatory, if they are written, oral or combined, and organises them.