Tertiary Education

Higher professional schools
Higher professional schools (vyšší odborná škola, VOŠ) is a type of school offering professional tertiary education. Schools offering this type of education are usually connected with professional high schools. In the end, the students have to take final exams (absolutorium) and write an absolvent thesis. Graduates are entitled to use the title "DiS" (diplomovaný specialista, specialist with diploma) after their name.

Higher education in the Czech Republic consist of public, state (police and military) and private universities. Study at public universities is unlimited and free (for education made in Czech language and first time attendants), but after the age of 26, the attendant will not receive the student status from social services and state would not pay his health insurance if he continues studying. Foreign students can attend as well, with choice to attend education made in Czech language for free, or pay for education done in English.

For private Universities a fee falls between 2,000 and 3,000 euro and for BSBA and MBA (not accredited by Ministry of Education) study programs between 3,000 and 10,000 euro. Prestige and qualities of education and research of public and state universities is much higher than private ones. Private universities have undergone many scandals in recent years.

For an example of a Czech public university governance, see Governance of Palacký University.
Education takes from 2 to 6 years, depending on degree of studies, every degree is requirement for another:
Bachelor degree programs - lasts usually 3 years, title Bc. (bakalář) or BcA. (bakalář umění) (only artistic fields of study), Maturita level is required. Students must pass final exam (státní zkouška, state exam - despite its name, this exam is not organized by state, but by universities themselves; at some universities required only if the student did not have good notes during his studies) and present their thesis.

Master degree programs - Bachelor degree required, except of law, pharmacy and 1st stage teaching (5 years programs, maturita required) and medicine (6 years programs, maturita required). They are finished by final exam (státní zkouška, for medicine státní rigorózní zkouška) and thesis presentation. Awarded titles:
Mgr. (magistr)
MgA. (magistr umění) - for artistic fields of study
Ing. (inženýr) - for technical and economical fields of study
Ing. arch. (inženýr architekt) - architecture
MUDr. (medicinae universalis doctor) - medicine
MVDr. (medicinae veterinariae doctor) - veterinal medicine
MDDr. (medicinae dentium doctor) - dentist
Doctor study programs, Ph.D. title

Except of these titles, more titles containing "Dr." exist. These titles are granted after a special exam (rigorózní zkouška), containing also a thesis presentation. For taking this exam, master degree education is required, but this programme itself does not have any education programme, also they are equal to master degree education. However, as they are a part of Czech tradition, they are used quite often. These titles include:
PhDr. - philosophiae doctor, for philosophy, literature, languages, pedagogics and similar subjects
JUDr. - iuris utriusque doctor, for law, formerly used also for security studies
RNDr. - rerum naturalium doctor, for natural sciences
ThDr. - theologiae doctor, for thelogy
PharmDr. - pharmaciae doctor, for pharmacy

Formerly, also other titles were used:
PaedDr. - pedagogiae doctor, for pedagogy, replaced by PhDr. title
RTDr. - rerum technicarum doctor, for technical science, it was not replaced by any title
RCDr. - rerum commercialum doctor, for economy, it was not replaced by any title
RSDr. - rerum socialium doctor, for absolvents of Communistic Party of Czechoslovakia Political University in Prague and Klement Gottwald Military Academy in Bratislava in years 1966-1989