Typology of Service-Learning

As Defined by Robert Sigmon, 1994:

Service-LEARNING: Learning goals primary; service outcomes secondary.

SERVICE-Learning: Service outcomes primary; learning goals secondary.

service learning: Service and learning goals completely separate.

SERVICE-LEARNING: Service and learning goals of equal weight and each enhances the other for all participants.

In this comparative form, the typology is helpful not only in establishing criteria for distinguishing service-learning from other types of service programs but also in providing a basis for clarifying distinctions among different types of service-oriented experiential education programs (e.g., school volunteer, community service, field education, and internship programs)